Thesis References

References used in the background research, methodology and design of this study are  listed by chapter.

Chapter 1 – Introduction

  • Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Kilpatrick, Dean G., Ph.D., Heidi S. Resnick, Ph.D., Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Ph.D., Lauren M. Conoscenti, M.A., and Jenna McCauley, M.S., “Drug-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape: A National Study,” July 2007. (https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/219181.pdf) (December 21, 2011)
  • Ledray, E. L. (1999). The sexual assault nurse examiner development and operation guide. U.S. Department of Justice. https://www.ncjrs.gov/ovc_archives/reports/saneguide.pdf retrieved March 3rd, 2016.
  • McCollister, K. E., French, M. T., & Fang, H. (2010). The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation.Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108(1-2), 98–109. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.12.002
  • Rape Crisis Survey (2014). http://www.endsexualviolence.org/files/NAESV2014RapeCrisisCenterSurveyFinal.pdf
  • Rumney, P. N. S. (2006). False allegations of rape. Cambridge Law Journal, 65pp. 128-158. Doi:10.1017/S0008197306007069.
  • US Department of Justice, Victim Costs and Consequences: A New Look, 1996
  • US Department of Justice, Felony Defendents in Large Urban Counties: average of 2002-2006
  • US Department of Justice, Criminal Victimization, 2013. Reviesed 9/19/2014. http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv13.pdf
  • US Federal Bureau of Investigations. https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010/tables/10shrtbl08.xls. Retrieved on March 5th, 2016.
  • US Federal Rules of Evidence, 2010. http://www.uscourts.gov/uscourts/RulesAndPolicies/rules/2010%20Rules/Evidence.pdf
    http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77434/1/WHO_RHR_12.37_eng.pdf
  • U.S. Department of Justice (2013). A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents Second Edition.
  • World Health Organization (2012) Understanding and addressing violence against women.
  • World Health Organization (2013). Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women WHO clinical and policy guidelines.

Chapter 2 – Literature Review

  • Adams, J. A., Botash, A. S. & Kellogg, N. (2004). Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 158(3), 280-285.
  • Adams, J.A., Girardin, B. & Faugno, D. (2001). Adolescent sexual assault: documentation of acute injuries using photo-colposcopy. Journal of Pediatric & Adolescent Gynecology, 14(4), 175-180.
  • Alempijevic, D., Savic, S., Pavlekic, S. & Jecmenica, D. (2007). Severity of injuries among sexual assault victims. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 14(5), 26-269.
    Anderson, S., McClain, N., & Riviello, R.J. (2006). Genital findings of women after consensual and nonconsensual intercourse. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 2(2), 59-65. Retrieved August 1, 2008, from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
  • Anderson, S.L., Parker, B.J. & Bourguignon, C.M. (2008). Changes in genital injury patterns over time in women after consensual intercourse. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 15(5), 306-311. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2007.12.007.
  • Astrup, B.S., Ravn, P., Thomsen, J.L. & Lauritsen, J. (2013). Patterned genital injury in cases of rape–a case-control study. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 20(5), 525-529. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2013.03.003.
  • Auffret, N., Claudel, J.P., Leccia, M.T., Poli, F., Farhi, D. & Dreno, B. (2015). AFAST – Adult Female Acne Scoring Tool: an easy-to-use tool for scoring acne in adult females. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, Dec 7 (Epub ahead of print). doi: 10.1111/jdv.13518.
  • Baker, R.B., Fargo, J.D., Shambley-Ebron, D. & Sommers, M.S. (2010). A source of healthcare disparity: race, skin color, and injuries after rape among adolescents and young adults. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 6(3), 144-150. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-3938.2010.01070.x.
  • Baker, S.P. O’Neill, B., Haddon, W., Jr. & Long, W.B. (1974) The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency. Journal of Trauma, 14(3), 187-196.
  • Baker, R.B. & Sommers, M.S. (2008). Relationship of genital injuries and age in adolescent and young adult rape survivors. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 37(3), 282-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2008.00239.x.
  • Bates-Jensen, B. (1992). Measurement of pressure sore status, University of California, Los Angeles, unpublished thesis.
  • Biggs, M., Stermac, L., & Divinsky, M. (1998). Genital injuries following sexual assault of women with and without prior sexual intercourse experience. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 159(1), 33. Retrieved August 1, 2008, from Academic Search Elite database.
  • Bowyer, L. & Dalton, M.E. (1997). Female victims of rape and their genital injuries. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 104(5), 617-620.
  • Crane, P.A. (2006). Predictors of injury associated with rape. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 2(2), 75. Retrieved August 1, 2008, from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
  • Drocton, P., Sachs, C., Chu, L. & Wheeler, M. (2008). Validation set of correlates of anogenital injury after sexual assault. Academic Emergency Medicine 15(3), 231-238.
  • Erkkila, M., Raino, J., Huhtala, H. Salonen, A. & Karhunen, P.J. (2014). Evaluation of anogenital injuries using white and UV-light among adult volunteers following consensual sexual intercourse. Forensic Science International, 242: 293-298. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.06.005. Epub 2014 Jun 12.
  • Hagemann, C.T., Stene, L.E., Myhre, A.K., Ormstad, K. & Schei, B. (2011). Impact of medico-legal findings on charge filing in cases of rape in adult women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 90(11), 1218-1224. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01246.x.
  • Henry, T. (2010) Characteristics of sex-related homicides in Alaska. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 6(2), 57-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-3938.2010.01069.x.
  • Hwa, H.L., Chen, S.C., Wu, M.Z., Shun, C.T., Liu, S.K., Lee, J.C. & Chen, Y.C (2010). Analysis of cases of sexual assault presenting at a medical center in Taipei. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 49(2), 165-169. doi: 10.1016/S1028-4559(10)60035-6
  • Jain, A.K. (2012). A new classification of diabetic foot complications: a simple and effective teaching tool. Journal of Diabetic Foot Complications, 4(1), 1-5.
  • Jones, J.S., Rossman, L., Diegel, R., Van Order, P. & Wynn, B.N. (2009) Sexual assault in postmenopausal women: epidemiology and patterns of genital injury. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 27(8), 922-929. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2008.07.010.
  • Jones, J., Rossman, L., Hartman, M., & Alexander, C. (2003). Anogenital injuries in adolescents after consensual sexual intercourse. Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(12), 1378-1383. Retrieved August 15, 2008, from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
  • Jones, J.S., Rossman, L., Wynn, B.N. & Ostovar, H. (2010). Assailants’ sexual dysfunction during rape: prevalence and relationship to genital trauma in female victims. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 38(4), 529-535. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.09.037. Epub 2009 Feb 20.
  • Kelly, D.L, Larkin, H.J., Cosby, C.D. & Paolinetti, L.A. (2013). Derivation of the Genital Injury Severity Scale (GISS): a concise instrument for description and measurement of external female genital injury after sexual intercourse. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine Elsevier, 20(6), 724-731. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2013.04.012. Epub 2013 May 28
  • Larkin, H.J., Cosby, C.D., Kelly, D. & Paolinetti, L.A. (2012). A pilot study to test the differential validity of a genital injury severity scale, in development for use in forensic sexual assault examinations. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 8(1), 30-38. doi:10.1111/j.1939-3938.2011.01124.x. Epub 2012 Jan 6
  • Lauber, A. A. & Souma, M. L. (1982). Use of toluidine blue for documentation of traumatic intercourse. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 60(5), 644-648.
  • Lavery, L.A., Armstrong, D.G. & Harkless, L.B. (1996) Classification of diabetic foot wounds. Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery, 35(6), 528-531.
  • Lincoln, C., Perera, R., Jacobs, I. & Ward, A. (2013). Macroscopically detected female genital injury after consensual and non-consensual vaginal penetration: a prospective comparison study. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 20(7), 884-901. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2013.06.025. Epub 2013 Aug 15.
  • Lynch, V.A. (2011). Forensic Nursing Science. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier
  • Maquire, W., Goodall, E. & Moore, T. (2009). Injury in adult female sexual assault complainants and related factors. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 142(2), 149-153. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2008.10.005. Epub 2008 Dec 2.
  • McCance, K. & Grey, T. (2010 ). Altered cellular and tissue biology. In McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L., & Rote, NS. (Eds.), Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (pp.46-90). Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.
  • McCance, K.L., Huether, S.E., Brashers, V.L. & Rote, N.S. (Eds.) (2010). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.
  • McCann, J., Miyamoto, S., Boyle, C. & Rogers, K. (2007). Healing of nonhymenal genital injuries in prepubertal and adolescent girls: a descriptive study. Pediatrics, 120(5), 1000-1011.
  • McCauley, J., Guzinski, G., Welch, R., Gorman, R. & Osmers, F. (1987). Toluidine blue in the corroboration of rape in the adult victim. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 5(2), 105-108.
  • McGregor, M.J., Le, G., Marion, S.A. & Wiebe, E. (1999). Examination for sexual assault: is the documentation of physical injury associated with the laying of charges? A retrospective cohort study. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 160(11), 1565-1569
  • McLean, I., Roberts, S.A., White, C. & Paul, S. (2011). Female genital injuries resulting from consensual and non-consensual vaginal intercourse. Forensic Science International, 204(1-3), 27-33. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.04.049. Epub 2010 May 31.
  • Moore, E.E., Jurkovich, G.J., Knudson, M.M., Cogbill, T.H., Malangoni, M.A., Champion, H.R. & Shackford, S.R. (1995). Organ injury scaling. VI: Extrahepatic biliary, esophagus, stomach, vulva, vagina, uterus (nonpregnant), uterus (pregnant), fallopian tube, and ovary. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 39(6), 1069-1070.
  • Richart RM. (1963). A clinical staining test for the in vivo delineation of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 86, 703-712.
  • Rossman, L., Jones, J.S., Dunnuck, C., Wynn, B.N. & Bermingham, M. (2004). Genital trauma associated with forced digital penetration. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 22(2), 101-104.
  • Sachs, C., Benson, A., Schriger, D., Wheeler, M. (2011). Reliability of female genital injury detection after sexual assault. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 7(4), 190-194. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-3938.2011.01117.x.
  • Sachs, C.J. & Chu, L.D. (2002). Predictors of genitorectal injury in female victims of suspected sexual assault. Academic Emergency Medicine, 9(2), 146-151.
  • Sampsel, K., Szobota, L., Joyce, D., Graham, K. & Pickett, W. (2009). The impact of a sexual assault/domestic violence program on ED care. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 35(4), 282-289. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2008.07.014. Epub 2008 Sep 2.
  • Slaughter, L. & Brown, C.R. (1992). Colposcopy to establish physical findings in rape victims. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 166(1 Pt 1), 83-86.
  • Slaughter, L., Brown, C. R. V., Crowley, S. & Peck, R. (1997). Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 3, 609-616.
  • Sommers, M. (2007). Defining patterns of genital injury from sexual assault. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 8(3), 270-280. Retrieved August 1, 2008, from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
  • Sommers, M.S., Brown, K.M., Buschur, C., Everett, J.S., Fargo, J.D., Fisher, B.S., Hinkle, C. & Zinc, T.M. (2012). Injuries from intimate partner and sexual violence: Significance and classification systems. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 19(5), 250-263. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2012.02.014. Epub 2012 Mar 6.
  • Sommers, M.S., Fargo, J.D., Baker, R.B., Fisher, B.S., Buschur, C. & Zinc, T.M. (2009). Health disparities in the forensic sexual assault examination related to skin color. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 5(4), 191-200. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-3938.2009.01054.x.
  • Stedenfelt, M., Pirhonen, J., Blix, E., Wilsgaard, T., Vonen, B. & Oian, P. (2012). Episiotomy characteristics and risks for obstetric anal sphincter injuries: a case-control study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 119(6), 724-730. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03293.x. Epub 2012 Mar 6.
  • Teasdale, G. & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, 2(7872), 81-84.
  • Teixeira, W. R. G. (1981). The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 2(3), 209-215.
  • U.S. Department of Justice (2013). A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents Second Edition.
  • White, C. (2013). Genital injuries in adults. Best Practices & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 27(1), 113-130. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2012.08.011. Epub 2012 Dec 5.
  • Zink, T, Fargo, J.D., Baker, R.B., Buschur, C., Fisher, B.S. & Sommers, M.S. (2010). Comparison of methods for identifying ano-genital injury after consensual intercourse. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 39(1), 113-118. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.08.024. Epub 2009 Feb 13.

Chapter 3 – Theoretical Framework

  • Bates-Jensen, B. B., Vredevoe, D. & Brecht, M. (1992). Validity and reliability of the pressure sore status tool. Decubitus; 5(6), 20-28.
  • Croskerry, P. (2006). Critical thinking and decision making: avoiding the perils of thin-slicing. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 48 (6): 720-722.
  • Croskerry, P. (2009). Clinincal cognition and diagnostic error: applications of a dual process model of reasoning. Adv in Health Science Education, (14) 27-35.
  • Crosskerry, P. & Nimmo, G.R. (2011). Better diagnostic decision making and reducing diagnostic error. Journal Royal College of Edinburgh, (41) 155-162.
  • Djulbegovic, B., Hozo, I., Beckstead., J., Tsalatsanis, A. & Pauker, S.G. (2012). Dual processing model of medical decision-making. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 12:94. doi: 10.1186/1472-6947-12-94.
  • Durning, S. J., Dong, T., Artino, A., van der Vleuten, C. & Holmboe, E. (2015). Dual processing theory and experts’ reasoning: exploring thinking on national multiple-choice questions. Perspect Med Edu, 4: 168-175.
  • Evans, J.S. (2011). Dual-process theories of reasoning: Contemporary issues and developmental applications [Special Issue]. Developmental Review- Elsevier, 31(2-3)
  • Frankish, K. & Evans, J.S. (2009). The Duality of Mind: An Historical Perspective. In Evans, J.S. & Frankish, K., In Two Minds: Dual processes and beyond (pp. pp 1-29). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gibbons, F. Houlihan, A. & Gerrard, A. (2009). Reason and reaction: the utility of a dual-focus, dual processing perspective on promotion and prevention of adolescent health risk behavior. British Journal of Health Psychology 14; 231-248.
  • Goel, V., Bruchel, C., Frith, C. & Dolan, R. (2000). Dissociation of mechanisms underlying syllogistic reasoning. Neuroimage, 12 (5): 504-514.
  • Lynch, V.A. (2006). Chapter 1: Forensic Nursing Science. In Hammer, R., Moynihan, B., Pagliano, E., Forensic Nursing: a Handbook for Practice (pp. 1-16). Burlington, MA:Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
  • The Forensic Nurse.com (http://www.theforensicnurse.com/ForensicNursingDefined.cfm )
  • Hammer, R., Moynihan, B., Pagliano, E., Forensic Nursing: a Handbook for Practice. Burlington, MA:Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
  • Ingersoll, J. E. (1987). Theory of financial decision making (Vol 3). Rowman & Kittlefield.
  • Lavery, A., Armstrong, D. & Harkless, L. (1996). Classifiaction of diabetic foot wounds. J Foot and Ankle Surg. 35 (6), 528-531.
  • Magee, B. (2001). The Story of Philosophy. New York, New York: DK.
  • Pelaccia, T, Tardif, J., Triby, E., Ammirati, C., Bertrand, C., Charlin B, & Dory,V. (2015). Insights into emergency physicians’ minds in the seconds before and into a patient encounter. Internal and Emergency Medicine, 10(7), 865-873. doi: 10.1007/s11739-015-1283-8. Epub 2015 Aug 1.
  • SANE Guide. See U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime (n.d.)
  • U.S. Department of the Airforce. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/fm101-5_mdmp.pdf
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime (n.d.). Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Development & Operation Guide (NCJ 170609). Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/ovc_archives/reports/saneguide.pdf
  • U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (1991). Aeronautical Decision Making (Initiated by: AFS-820). Retrieved from http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentid/22624
  • Wagner, F. (1981). The dysvascular foot: a system for diagnosis and treatment. Foot Ankle. 2, 64-122.

Chapter 4 – Methods

  • Chang,A., Gardner, G., Duffield, C. & Ramis, M. (2010). A delphi study to validate an advanced practice nursing tool. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(10), 2320-2330. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05367.x
  • Ernst, E., Speck, P. & Fitzpatrick, J. (2012). The element of naturalness when evaluating image quality of digital photo documentation after SA. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal, 34(3), 250-8. doi:10.1097/TME.0b013e3182616eb2
  • Harris, C., Bates-Jensen, B., Parslow, N., Raizman, R., Singh, M., & Ketchen, R. (2010). Bates-Jensen wound assessment tool: pictorial guide validation project. Journal of Wound Ostomy & Continence Nursing, 37(3), 253-259, doi:10.1097/WON.0b013e3181d73aab. PubMed PMID: 20386331.
  • Hwang, H., Tu, C., Chen, S. & Wang H. (2012). Caring behaviors perceived by elderly residents of long-term care facilities: scale development and psychometric assessment. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(2), 183-190. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.08.013.
  • Keeny, S., Hasson, F. & McKenna, H. (2011). The Delphi Technique in Nursing and Health Research. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Lynch, V.A. (2006). Chapter 1: Forensic Nursing Science. In Hammer, R., Moynihan, B., Pagliano, E., Forensic Nursing: a Handbook for Practice (pp. 1-16). Burlington, MA:Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
  • McCance, K. & Grey, T. (2010 ). Altered cellular and tissue biology. In McCance, K., Huether, S., Brashers, V. & Rote, N. (Eds.), Pathophysiology: The biological basis for disease in adults and children (pp.46-90). Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.
  • McCann, J., Miyamoto, S., Boyle, C., & Rogers, K. (2007). Healing of nonhymenal genital injuries in prepubertal and adolescent girls: a descriptive study. Pediatrics, 120(5), 1000-11.
  • McCann, J., Miyamoto, S., Boyle, C., & Rogers, K. (2007). Healing of nonhymenal genital injuries in prepubertal and adolescent girls: a descriptive study. Pediatrics, 120(5), 1000-11.
  • Miert, C., Abbott, J., Verheoff, F., Lane, S., Carter, B. & McNamara, P. (2014). Development and validation of the Liverpool infant bronchiolitis severity score: a research protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(10), 2353-2362. doi: 10.1111/jan.12387
  • Randolph, J. (2009 ) A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 14(13). Retrieved from http://www.pareonline.net/pdf/v14n13.pdf
  • Sachs, C., Benson, A., Schriger, D., Wheeler, M. (2011). Reliability of female genital injury detection after SA. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 7(4), 190-194. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-3938.2011.01117.x. pg 28
  • Schultz, V., Kozell, K., Biondo, P., Stiles, C., Tonkin, K. & Hogin, N. (2009). The malignant wound assessment tool: a validation study using a Delphi approach. Palliative Medicine, 23(3), 266-273. doi: 10.1177/0269216309102536.
  • Starling, S., Frasier, L., Jarvis, K. & Mc Donald, A. (2013). Inter-rater reliability in child sexual abuse diagnosis among expert reviewers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(7), 456-464. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.01.002.
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women. (2013). A National Protocol for SA Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents (NCJ 228119). Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=250131
  • Waltz, C., Strickland, O. & Lenz, E. (2010). Measurement in Nursing and Health Research: Fourth Edition. New York, New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC. Pg 23.
  • Werschler, W., Fagien, S., Thomas, J., Paradkar-Mitragotri, D., Rotunda, A. & Beddingfield, F. (2015 ). Development and validation of a photographic scale for assessment of lip fullness, Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 35(3), 294-307. doi: 10.1093/asj/sju025 pg 28.